What causes psoriasis? Lectins may be a missing link.

** Originally posted by DottieD **

A lot of research has been done on psoriasis, mostly dealing with studies of the lesions or with the inflammatory chemicals (like TNF-alpha or interleukins) that promote lesion development. There is also plenty of basic research on the immune system and inflammation. If some of this basic research could be connected to psoriasis, we would have a better understanding of the causes of psoriasis, and better able to do something about it. This post discusses one important connection.

Psoriasis is an immune system disorder. Because of our genetic makeup we are prone to develop inflammation in our bodies, causing an inappropriate reaction in our skin and sometimes joints. The reaction may be more severe if we eat a lot of sugar, gain weight, are under a lot of stress, or irritate our skin. We can sometimes reduce this inflammation by taking medications, moisturizing, eating less arachidonic acid, taking supplements, or doing UV light treatments.

BUT WHAT IS THE BASIC CAUSE OF THIS INFLAMMATION? WHAT GETS THE PROCESS GOING IN THE FIRST PLACE?

A lot of people with p have reported that they have an inflammatory reaction to certain foods, most frequently wheat, dairy, legumes (beans), or nightshade plants. I had a bad flare after eating baked beans last summer and also had a massive breakout after eating wheat germ a number of years ago. These foods were causing a FOOD INTOLERANCE (also called a food sensitivity), and I have learned that something called lectins are responsible.

I have been studying exactly what happens when intolerance occurs – to see if this would shed light on how some of us develop psoriasis and why it sticks around. Here is my understanding from what I have read:

Our bodies’ cells have protein-sugar molecules sticking out on their surface. They are called SURFACE RECEPTORS and we are all unique in the exact structure of these molecules. (Please note that there are a lot of different types of sugars other than what we call “sugar.” The ones involved here are other members of the sugar family.) LECTINS are a class of proteins that bind to the sugar part of these surface molecules, but only if the structure is a perfect match – much like a key that fits a certain lock. Our bodies produce natural lectins that perform many functions, such as antibody actions. But we also eat a lot of lectins that come from plants. And some of these can cause a bad reaction in our body.

Our stomach and small intestine walls are lined with epithelial (skin) cells and some cells that secrete mucus. Like other body cells, they have surface receptors.

When proteins are digested, they are supposed to be broken down into amino acids before entering the body – either as single units or at most chains of 2 or 3. That way, the body can make the exact proteins it needs. Also, this prevents foreign proteins (as in viruses) from gaining a foothold. Our white cells are constantly on the lookout for foreign proteins and foreign surface receptors, and will go to work immediately to try to get rid of any they come across – this is part of the inflammation reaction.
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Suppose you have an intolerance to some type of lectin (such as gluten). Here is what is thought to happen when you eat it:

First, some of the lectin may attach to surface receptors in the stomach. This binding causes a decrease in mucus secretion which may result in overgrowth of bacteria in the stomach. The lectin attachments cause an inflammatory response in the stomach wall, causing it to secrete more histamine, which in turn stimulates more acid secretion. The person may feel heartburn.

Secondly, lectins are very resistant to being digested, so when they get into the small intestine they don’t break down into amino acids like other proteins. If you have an intolerance to the lectin, you have exactly the right “lock” on the cells lining your gut wall for the lectin “key”, so the lectin proteins attach to the gut wall. This binding causes disruption of the normal wall activity: the epithelial cells are stimulated to wrap their cell membranes around the lectin proteins and move them into the small intestine tissue (a process called exocytosis). Once in the gut tissue, the lectins cause an inflammatory response from the white cells residing there. In addition, part of this lectin moves on into your body circulation where it can cause damage to your body.

If you continue to eat the offending lectin day after day, month after month, the intestine walls gradually become more inflamed. They are stimulated to grow and divide more, causing disruption of the normal tight bonding between the cells; the intestine wall becomes more irregular and defective areas gradually develop. At some point these defects may become large enough for other proteins or protein fragments to leak through. These proteins may cause their own problems in the body (particularly in joints, brain, and skin), and the white cells and the liver have to work hard to rid the body of them.

The story is actually a little more complex, but this additional info explains why strep or other respiratory infections often cause psoriasis to develop or worsen. The following is a summary from an article by Dr. David Freed in the British Medical Journal (1999):

The tips of the protein-sugar molecules sticking out of our cells are normally covered with a fine screen of sialic acid molecules. Sialic acid is another member of the sugar family. Inside our body, this coating of sialic acid protects the surface receptors from unwanted lectin attachments and helps keep the cells hydrated. Strep bacteria and several other infectious germs are able to strip the sialic acid off the receptor tips when they invade the body. Thus, these receptors are now available for lectin attachment. The binding to lectins can disrupt the function of that tissue. It also causes white cells to attack the tissue - which is called an autoimmune response.

Another article explained that strep bacteria make their own lectins, and after stripping away the sialic acid, may use these lectins to attach to our cells.
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To be Continued: What can be done to solve this problem.
DottieD

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114 replies. Join the discussion

** Originally posted by OtherThoughts **

[LEFT]DottieD[/LEFT]
[INDENT]There is another complication in the test I'm doing: each capsule of Lectin Lock contains 25 mg of pepsin - an enzyme normally secreted in the stomach that breaks down proteins. So part of its benefit may come from breaking down some of the lectins (which are a type of protein) before they have the chance to attach to the gut walls. [/INDENT]

Incomplete digestion, especially concerning proteins and peptides will undoubtedly escalate our immune responses. To the best of my knowledge, our digestive enzymes cleave proteins more efficiently in the low PH-(acidic) environment of our stomachs, destroying many pathogens in the process and I suspect that many lectins are considered pathogens as DottieD elucidated to and are destroyed.

The PH of our intestines are more neutral in PH (basic) and the proteases that worked nicely in our stomach"s acidic environment are rendered mostly ineffective in the intestine's neutral PH environment.

To the best of my understanding, certain enzymes cleave specific amino acid pair bonds. Pepsin cleaves peptide pair bonds for sure, but which ones I can't say with any authority. <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bromelain"">The Bromelain </a>in Pineapple cleaves peptide bonds in meat better and the <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papain"">Papain </a>in Papayas cleaves peptide pair bonds in milk better.

Notwithstanding both Pineapple's and Papaya's protease activity, these fruits have also been flagged for avoidance because they contain lectins as well. It all becomes very confusing and incomprehensible quite swiftly. The deeper the investigation, the more pieces we have in our puzzle's.

I am sure that the talented members on this forum have discussed the percentage of our immune resources which are devoted to our digestive tract a great many times before. So forgive me if I am treading on well covered ground.

I've read or heard somewhere that about 70% of our immune system is devoted to our digestive tract. Now I am not going to vouch for the veracity of this assumption. All that I am willing to say is that our digestive tract's Immune systems have got a very tough neighborhood to patrol and probably do represent a large share of our immune system's focus.

We all know that even viruses need their RNA peptide chains intact in order for them to survive and hijack our cellular apparatus. If we break their RNA protein chains down to single amino acids, di-peptides and tri-peptides during our digestive processes, the programming code for that particular life form is destroyed as well. What I am saying here is that our immune systems don't get very excited about single amino acids, di-peptides and tri-peptides being absorbed by our guts. If it's broken down all the way to single amino acids, di-peptides and tri-peptides, the immune system knows it is dead.

Now lets take a look at <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_hemagglutinin"">hemagglutinin</a>, the H in the H1N1 swine flu. Hemagglutinin is the doorway the H1N1 virus uses to gain entry into the cell and hijack it's Machinery for it's own purposes. This relates to both animals and plants . Check out <a href="http://"http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/Foodborne IllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm071092.htm"">uncooked kidney Beans</a>, high in protein and quite tasty if you ask me.

<a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuraminidase"">Neuraminidase </a>is the N in the H1N1 swine flu, it is the doorway that the virus uses to exit the cell. Drugs like "<a href="http://"http://human-infections.suite101.com/article.cfm/how_h1n1_inf ects_human_cells"">TAMIFLU</a>" inhibit Neuraminidase.

So what I am saying is that the digestive tract likely has the toughest job of all and that a large segment of our immune system's are likely being assigned to this border crossing.

What If we don't eat? then the battle subsides and we die after about 40 days of fasting. So if fasting clears up your psoriasis? And over-eating makes it worse? Does that mean that there is a link between our diets and our psoriasis? Or does it merely suggest that if we take a load off of our guts, that our Psoriasis improves in a predictable and proportionate way, along with all other types of inflammation in our bodies? I don't know.

The pulmonary system/respiratory tract has the second hardest job because it is also a border crossing open to the world, but it is mainly used for the exchange of gases. So any unusual proteins stick out like a sore thumb in your lungs.

So is it any wonder that these two battle zones, open to the world, are areas of high rates of cellular turnover and high rates of cancer as well? One of Cancer's main traits is uncontrolled cellular proliferation.

Wherever the greatest battles occur, lots of collateral damage to our nuclear DNA occurs, which in turn results in mutations that occasionally result in deactivation of our tumor suppressor genes. The tumor begins to demand greater and greater resources. So <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vascular_endothelial_growth_fact or"">VEGF</a> and other oncogenes are ramped up to meet the tumor's increasing demands.

Now I'll admit that I've gone a long way to make a point and I apologize to those who found it tiresome or tedious. But it seems to me that Cancer and Plaque Psoriasis have a lot in common.

For example, those of you that have large inflamed plaques on your knees, elbows and ankles like me, have you ever felt how much warmer your plaques are than a patch of healthy skin just a couple of inches away? When the temperature differential is high, I am having a flare. When the temperature differential is low, I am looking pretty good. So why are the plaques warmer? Angiogenisis? VEGF? Just like a tumor perhaps? But we don't have Cancer! WTF is going on?

Lung Cancer and Colon Cancer are the most prevalent Cancers. Tissues that are battling against pathogens almost constantly. By way of comparison our skin's have a gravy job. There are no radical battles happening on my knees, elbows and shins against some evil pathogen.

So what I am saying is that I understand the reasons for IBS, Celiac Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Lung cancer, Bronchitis etc . Hell if even raw kidney beans are trying to protect themselves from being eaten and get a leg up. All of life is out for itself, I get that. But what does this insane battle occurring upon my elbows, knees and shins have to do with the more logical battles in my lungs and <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_gastrointestinal_tract"">alimentary </a>canal? This is what puzzles me. I am hoping that together we really can figure this out! :)

So let me sum things up a little bit here. Our immune systems racially profile proteins firstly, the longer the peptide, the more suspicious they are. After proteins the immune system targets glyco-proteins (proteins decorated with sugars), now let's substitute the word "Protein" for "People" and "Decorated with sugars" for Clothes. People wearing clothes, just like you and me. How do you decide who's evil and who's friendly? I usually watch what they do and I am influenced somewhat by their apparel. I think that our immune systems do the same thing we do?

Seasonal Flu shots and Booster shots for things like tetanus, etc. are simply,"WANTED" posters displaying a known felon or three being added to the immune system's most wanted list.

The immune system doesn't care about fatty acids per se. But the types of fatty acids we consume, influence the hormonal signaling and ultimately the balance of our immune system's intensity. Too much of one kind of fatty acid and our immune system gets too aggressive. Too much of another kind of fatty acid and our immune system gets too weak.

OK, I am going to wrap things up soon, I promise!

My pitted and warped fingernails are slow growing metabolically speaking, they never have to flex like my elbows do.

My elbows have very little muscle or adipose tissue, it's mostly just skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and the like. It's the same description for my knees and ankles too.

These tissues are vastly different from those in my lungs and gut. My lungs and gut flex a lot from breathing, digestion and peristalsis. But not as much as my knees, elbows and shins do.

So here's my conclusion, my nails are mostly <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keratin"">Keratin</a> , My tendons, ligaments, bursa, cartilage and skin also have a lot of keratin in them. I think this is also why we are susceptible to Psoriatic Arthritis.

Our hair also has a lot of keratin in it's structure and may explain why we suffer from scalp Psoriasis or inverse Psoriasis in our hairy regions?

So I am arguing that the amino acids Glycine, Alanine, Cysteine-(Sulfur bearing). as well as our Serum Homocysteine levels have something to do with this being that they influence or are components in keratin.

Our Serum Homocysteine levels can decreased by increasing our B-6, B-12, Folic acid and other "Methyl Donors".

It would be interesting to investigate the correlation (if any) between the serum levels of the B vitamins, serum Homocysteine levels and Psoriasis intensity.

Many Thanks to those of you that I haven't put to sleep thus far. And My apologies to those I have.

Best Regards - OtherThoughts

A pdf on antioxidants
<a href="http://"http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/ORAC /ORAC07.pdf"">Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
(ORAC) of Selected Foods – 2007</a>

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** Originally posted by DottieD **

Other thoughts - Thanks for that thoughtful reply. Your Foods for Thought was a mighty big meal!! You've brought up a lot of interesting connections and a lot of issues to wonder about. I do have a few comments.

1. For those uncomfortable with reading scientific papers, the ORAC mentioned is a paper published by the US Dept of Agriculture. It lists a large number of common foods and tells how much potential anti-oxidant activity each one has. The reason this is important is that chemical reactions are occurring in our bodies all the time - to make enzymes and hormones and new cells, provide energy, etc. Some of these reactions result in free oxygen atoms being released. These atoms are highly reactive and will grab another oxygen anywhere they can in order to become an oxygen molecule again. The "grabbing" of oxygen atoms can cause damage to cells, which stimulates the immune system. So oxidative reactions are a source of inflammation in our bodies.

Unfortunately, humans do not have the ability to make enough antioxidants to trap all the oxygen atoms. So we have to rely on antioxidants from the foods we eat to get the job done (or take supplements). If you look at the article, you can skip the writing and go straight to the table. For each food, look at the reading called "T-ORAC." That gives the total antioxidant value for the food. Here are some of the numbers (rounded off for simplicity).

Of the vegetables, the winner is artichokes, which have a score of 8000. Next come black, kidney, or pinto beans at 7500, followed by soybeans at 5700. Broccoli has a score of 2400, sweet potatoes 2100, asparagus 1600, spinach 1500, potatoes 1400, romaine lettuce 1200, cabbage 500, tomatoes 400, corn 500, green beans 300.

Of the fruits, the winner is cranberries at 9400, followed by blueberries and prunes at 6600, then raspberries 4900, granny smith apples 3900, other apples 2400, and strawberries 3600. Red grapes are 1300, green grapes 1100. Cantaloupe is only 300 and watermelon is only 140. (They didn't list acai berries or pomegranate.)

For other misc. foods: dark chocolate candy is 21,000 (Yay!!), milk chocolate candy is 7500. Of the nuts, pecans win at 18,000 with walnuts 14,000 followed by almonds 4500, peanuts 3200, and cashews 2000. Red wine has a score of 4500 and white wine a score of 400. Many spices have high scores, but 100 grams is way more than anyone would eat.

Looking at these numbers may help us make better choices in the foods we eat to maximize our bodies' ability to trap free radicals. That will help to eliminate one potential source of inflammation in our bodies.

2. You wondered about whether cancer and plaque psoriasis might be related. I think there is general agreement that they are not. After my second breast cancer, the oncologist remarked that it was very rare to see cancer patients with psoriasis. He felt that generally, the heightened immune system activity in people with p helps to protect them against many cancers. (Wouldn't you know I'd be the exception!!)

3. As to investigating the correlation (if any) between vitamin B levels and psoriasis, it has been my experience that excess vitamin B's (as in taking stress formula vitamins) caused my p to worsen. Since B vitamins are needed for cell replication, they seem to act somewhat as a fertilizer for new cell growth. So if your skin is stimulated to make more keratinocytes because of an inappropriate immune response, having plenty of vitamin B will probably help in that task. I don't believe this would be related to a Cause of psoriasis.

4. Your comments about bromelain and papain are extremely interesting. Since some people have an intolerance to dairy products (other than lactose intolerance, which is a different thing), perhaps taking a papain supplement might be helpful to them.

DottieD

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** Originally posted by stewartintheUK **

Some of those foods that have high antioxidants though also seem to be high lectins ;) bangs head on table, lol

Dottie interesting that you chose that other tablets over slippery elm (which also coats the tract)., any reason ?

did u compare the deflect tablets (above)? are any betterthan lectin lock

how weeks 1 going of your new pills etc ?

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** Originally posted by DottieD **

Actually, I bought a bag of slippery elm about 2 months ago, but put off trying it because I am reluctant to try herbal products that I don't know anything about, and I understood that it has a bad taste. In reading about food intolerances, I learned that mucins can coat the stomach and gut and provide a bit of a barrier to lectin attachments. Since psyllium (found in Metamucil) is a mucin, I chose that instead. I believe they work the same way.

I did compare the ingredients of Lectin Lock and the DEFLECT tablets. Lectin Lock has a broader spectrum of activities toward lectins - not only does it have 4 of the sugars that can tie up lectins, but it also has two mucins for coating and some pepsin, which helps break down proteins. So it's probably not as "pure" of a product for my test, but I already had 2 bottles ordered so I decided to stick with the original plan.

I have been doing this test for 1 week now, and it's too early to drawn any conclusions. My skin is starting to clear up, but I'm coming off a mild flare that occurred 3 weeks ago, so I expected to start getting better from that by now. I can say that it's a very easy test to do. Before eating I decide whether to take 1 capsule or two. I keep a small container of the capsules in my purse in case we decide to eat out on the spur of the moment. The capsules have no taste and no effects such as bloating or stomach upset. I have the sense that I'm a little calmer, but this could be psychological.

DottieD

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** Originally posted by stewartintheUK **

You're lucky, if i get a flare the new patches just stay they dont receed, so my skin just builds up more and more over time.
Im looking into coating the stomach, i was taking lepicol but it only helps a little bit (its a mix of psyllium, fos, and freindly bacteria), iopted for the tablets cause the powder seemed to be very bulky and therefore heard to get down. What form are you on ?

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** Originally posted by DottieD **

As promised, here is a short summary of the book, "Lectins", by Drs. Sharon and Lis, two recognized experts in lectin research. They are biochemists, so the majority of the book dealt with the chemical properties of lectins: the structure of the molecules, how the attachments occur, and properties of the chemical bonds. The book gives the scientific names of many lectins, and specifically what materials each lectin can attach to.

Lectins are a class of proteins that can bind to specific carbohydrates. Our cells have surface receptors, unique proteins with carbohydrate tips. Lectins are able to attach to the carbohydrate or to sialic acid molecules (another type of sugar) that coat the surface of the cells. The carbohydrates that can be bound by a lectin include mannose, glucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, fucose, and N-acetylneuraminic acid. These are all typically found on animal cell surfaces. At least 30% of the grains, vegetables, and fruits we eat contain lectins. They are thought to have evolved mainly as a way for plants to protect themselves against predatory animals. They also help plants in the bean family attach to nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

The book gave a table of foods in which lectins have been found, and the particular carbohydrate each lectin has been found to bind to. I posted a list of these earlier, so I won’t repeat it here.

Early studies of lectins were focused on determining blood types: O, A, B, and AB. Specific lectins will attach to the red blood cells of a specific type of blood. Because most lectin molecules have several attachment sites, they will attach to more than one blood cell, causing clumping of the blood cells. A person’s blood type can be determined by testing which lectins will cause his/her red cells to clump.

Another reason for interest in lectins is that flu viruses recognize and bind to sialic acid-containing receptors on the cell surfaces, particularly in red blood cells and in lung tissue. The authors expressed a hope that more research on lectins will lead to production of safe and effective lectin- blocking agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, inflammatory diseases, and even cancer.

Since lectins are proteins, their activity can sometimes be reduced by cooking the food, particularly if cooked well. Slow cooking (as in a crock pot) is not as effective because the temperature does not get up to boiling. If the lectins are water soluble, some of the lectin content can be removed by soaking the food (e.g., beans) in water, then discarding the water. However, in the case of kidney beans, the lectins are so toxic that if the beans are not well cooked, the person may get very sick. There have been several outbreaks of food poisoning from eating raw or partially cooked kidney beans. In England, kidney bean packages are required to have a warning on them.

When foods containing plant lectins are eaten, the lectins are resistant to being digested. Instead, they will attach to surface receptors on the intestinal wall if the surface receptors are a perfect “fit.” This binding depends on the person’s genetic makeup. The binding is not uniform, with different lectins binding selectively in different areas. The authors summarized the effects of kidney bean lectin on the digestive tract:

- A major consequence is damage to the absorption of nutrients across the intestinal wall.

- The lectin binds to epithelial cells lining the wall, causing damage to the brush border, endocytosis, and interaction with digestive enzymes.

- It interferes with epithelial cell metabolism, causing hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and increased turnover of cells.

- It affects the cells in the gut that secrete hormones, thus affecting the whole body's metabolism.

- It interferes with the gut's own immune system: sIgA:IgE and systemic responses.

- It selectively affects bacterial growth and increases adhesion of microbes. Eating lectins that attach to the intestinal wall may cause an overgrowth of E.coli and related bacteria. This is because the lectins can bind to both the intestinal epithelial cells and the bacteria, thus serving as a glue for the attachment of these bacteria to the intestine wall.

The stomach and intestine of animals are continuously exposed to dietary lectins. Studies in rodents have shown that a diet containing lectins that can attach to the gut wall will provoke an immune response that spreads throughout the body. Furthermore, human blood has been found to contain antibodies to the lectins of peanuts, soybeans, and wheat germ. This would indicate that some of the dietary lectin is getting at least through the wall of the gut and likely into the body itself.

The book did not cover the topic of lectins and autoimmune disorders, although it contained a brief comparison of lectins and antibodies.
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The impression I got from this book is that lectins are a more serious problem for many people than is commonly realized. The effects may be too vague to realize what the problem is, or there may be no obvious symptoms. And yet our bodies could be under chronic stress from having to continually deal with these proteins or the effects of their attachments, and may even be suffering internal damage from chronic exposure. An article in the British Med. Journal described another instance where a large number of people in England got extremely sick after eating kidney beans. No bacteria or foreign matter in the beans could be detected, and they had been properly cooked, but tests showed that these beans had a higher-than-normal amount of bean lectin.

If a higher-than-normal amount of lectin in kidney beans can cause "food poisoning", what are these same lectins in normal beans doing to us ???

DottieD

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** Originally posted by OtherThoughts **

Thanks DottieD for summarizing and condensing the material in my prior post for the benefit of our fellow members who aren't as interested as I am in the more esoteric scientific details.

You really are a Jewel, and in addition, you are far better than I am anyway at being concise and to the point!

I am so sorry to hear about your being an exception to the rule and having to cope with both, Breast Cancer and Psoriasis.

Being that Cancer and Psoriasis are generally strange bedfellows. It made me wonder whether or not you had possibly seen a Geneticist in the course of your cancer treatment, and if so did they find any <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BRCA1"">BRCA1</a> or <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BRCA2"">BRCA2</a> mutations? I hope you'll forgive me for prying;).

With regard to my comments concerning B-Vitamins, Homocysteine and Keratin. I really meant to place the focus on <a href="http://"http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/reprint/136/6/1636S.pdf"">Sulfur containing amino acids</a> and the Sulfur content of the proteins in our ligaments, tendons, cartilage, bursa, nails, hair and skin and to place some emphasis on the relatively slow metabolic activity of these tissues generally, despite the noteworthy exception of our psoriatic skin plaques. To put it more plainly, this is what I came up with when I was wondering why Psoriasis has a special affinity for these particular areas.

Sulfur is one of the primary components in Glucosamine sulfate, Chondroitin sulfate, MSM-(Methly-sufonyl-methane) and SAMe supplements targeted to address connective tissues issues.

I probably should have included <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collagen"">Collagen</a> alongside Keratin with my comments, being that collagen is also a major component of the tissues I meant to focus on. My bad;)

So why do our Psoriatic immune system's apparently take issue with these types of tissues more so than it does with others?

Now we all know that if we eat something that we are allergic to, we might break out in <a href="http://"https://health.google.com/health/ref/Hives"">Hives</a>. So there is undoubtedly a connection between what we eat and our skin's appearance. However Hives has no particular affinity for our knees, elbows and ankles.

So if there is a dietary connection to our psoriasis? I am suggesting that if we look at what's special or distinct about the tissues psoriasis affects most predominately, it may be a clue to help us narrow the search?

Thanks Again and Best Regards!
OtherThoughts

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** Originally posted by DottieD **

VERY interesting thoughts - a tasty snack! This is certainly an aspect of psoriasis that deserves a closer look - maybe it would have implications for understanding the causes.

I hope you don't mind my summarizing some of the info from the sites you have recommended. It's hard to resist a chance to explain something ("once a teacher, always a teacher".....)

My new internist brought up the matter of the genetic testing and we're now considering it. Thanks for the suggestion.

DottieD

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** Originally posted by OtherThoughts **

DottieD
I very much appreciate your summaries, as I suspect many of the other members do as well!

You do a great job of it if you ask me. Your summaries help to include those members in the discussion who would otherwise be put off by the clinical nature of my posts.

Thank you!
OtherThoughts

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** Originally posted by DottieD **

TWO-WEEK PROGRESS REPORT

I've been using Lectin Lock for 2 weeks now, combined with a fairly healthy diet. To date I have not seen a noticeable improvement in my skin, although I think it's far too early to see anything.

Last week I saw an allergist, who tested me for about 50 possible allergies (each requiring a stick in the back!) and they were all negative. So I have ruled out allergies as a source of inflammation.

This may also be interesting: 3 years ago I had a sharp pain in my lower chest and was referred to a GI dr for an endoscopy to make sure it wasn't an ulcer. (It wasn't - I had a hairline crack in a rib.) I contacted the dr last week and got a copy of the endoscopy report, which included several biopsies from my stomach and upper small intestine. The report stated that I had "mild acute and chronic inflammation" in both areas and "no fungal organisms." These findings would support the idea that lectins attaching to the gut wall might be causing an inflammatory reaction.

DottieD

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** Originally posted by avadoro **

These findings would support the idea that lectins attaching to the gut wall might be causing an inflammatory reaction.

DottieD

probably You have found your trigger.
80 % of substances that play role in our immune system are being created in our guts ( pro and anti inflammatory )

if your report shows inflammation you should focus on this for sure.

good luck :)

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** Originally posted by lazza **

TWO-WEEK PROGRESS REPORT
This may also be interesting: 3 years ago I had a sharp pain in my lower chest and was referred to a GI dr for an endoscopy to make sure it wasn't an ulcer. (It wasn't - I had a hairline crack in a rib.) I contacted the dr last week and got a copy of the endoscopy report, which included several biopsies from my stomach and upper small intestine. The report stated that I had "mild acute and chronic inflammation" in both areas and "no fungal organisms." These findings would support the idea that lectins attaching to the gut wall might be causing an inflammatory reaction.
DottieD

Did your GI doctor suggest anything at the time to address this inflammation? Have you ever tried to clean/detox your colon? I just finished a colon cleanse using psyllium husks and triphala, both rather harmless stuff. I believe it has helped me. Others I know who are on psyllium husks also report an improvement in the P condition.


_Lazza

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** Originally posted by DottieD **

No, the GI doctor didn't offer any help about the inflammation - at either visit. He didn't seem that knowledgeable about lectins, except that he deals with patients who have gluten intolerance, such as celiac disease. He seemed in a bit of a hurry, so I decided not to push the issue.

On the other hand, the allergist was quite interested in lectins and wanted me to keep him up to date on how my lectin test was going. I'm pretty sure if I wanted some special kind of testing, he would order it. He made the point that allergists usually focus on the CAUSE of medical problems, unlike many other specialties where they focus more on the treatments.

I haven't done a colon cleanse, but I took several laxatives to do a little cleaning out when I started doing a test of Archael's sugar hypothesis, and followed that with one amoxicillin tablet, and it seemed to help my skin a little. I am planning to discuss the possibility of taking a round of antibiotics when I see the internist in a couple of weeks, to rule out any infection as a source of inflammation. I take Metamucil (which is psyllium husks) for the fiber content, but haven't noticed it helping my skin.

Maybe a colon cleanse would be worthwhile. However, the attachment of lectins to the gut wall is not a permanent binding, so if Lectin Lock can prevent any new attachments, that ought to do the trick. Assuming this idea is correct, the problem is that I have been inflaming my gut for years and years from eating foods with offending lectins, and probably have physical damage to the intestine walls that is going to take some time to heal.

DottieD

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** Originally posted by stewartintheUK **

I think the problem remainsthat although lectins may be heavily contributing once psoriasis has emerged it COULD be that the body is overly infested with some birus,fungi,bacteria, and whilst taking the load of the gut with lectin lock may help one has to address killing off the offendingorganism before balance will reoccur. Im trying propoliis (a whole pipette full x 3 a day, non alchol based tincture). Will let u know if any help

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** Originally posted by DottieD **

Stewart - You have an interesting point there. I'm not familiar with propolis, but read a little about it just now. Do you plan to take it on a regular basis, or just for a while until you (hopefully) kill off any organisms in your gut? How will you know if you are successful?

I am taking 2000 IU of vitamin D most days when I'm not out in the sun, and this has some of the same activity as propolis. Vitamin D has been shown to turn on our genes that are responsible for making cathelicidins - our body's own natural antibiotic and antiviral compounds.

For me, I don't think killing off organisms in the gut is the key, because I have taken antibiotics in the past and never got cleared up from that. If I take a course of antibiotics in a few weeks it will be more to rule out the possibility of harboring some strep or other bacteria in my tonsils. I'm also scheduled for a blood test next week with a white cell count and a c-reactive protein (which measures overall inflammation in the body).

DottieD

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** Originally posted by stewartintheUK **

hi Dottmeister. I think most antibiotics are perhaps not broadspectrum enough to cope with what might be many opportunistic co infections. Further they can kill off good bacteria and wont tackle viruses. Propolis is essentially the stuff that protects the hive (womb) so it has to be multiagile in its protection.

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** Originally posted by OtherThoughts **

DottieD
[INDENT]I am taking 2000 IU of vitamin D most days when I'm not out in the sun, and this has some of the same activity as propolis. Vitamin D has been shown to turn on our genes that are responsible for making cathelicidins - our body's own natural antibiotic and antiviral compounds.
[/INDENT]


Firstly,some Pdf links I dug up for anyone having the time and inclination?
<a href="http://"http://www.nature.com/jid/journal/v128/n6/pdf/5701184a.pdf""> The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor System in Skin Repair and Inflammation</a>

<a href="http://"http://www.journal-inflammation.com/content/pdf/1476-9255-5-5 .pdf"">Proinflammatory role of amphiregulin, an epidermal growth factor family member whose expression is augmented in rheumatoid arthritis patients</a>

<a href="http://"http://www.nature.com/jid/journal/v125/n5/pdf/5603631a.pdf""> UVB Upregulates the Antimicrobial Protein hCAP18 mRNA in Human Skin</a>

Wikipedia(zinc deficiency perhaps?)
<a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_metalloproteinase"">Matrix metalloproteinase</a>

I'll argue the following position,
2000 IU of Vitamin D in supplement form is not identical to synthesizing 2000 IU of it naturally from Sunlight striking the skin, at least as far as the skin is concerned, Psoriatic skin .....all the more so.

I'm just saying,
Vitamin D supplements never gave me a tan or burn or made me pink. A tan or burn or making you pink is doing something over and above that which it contributes to your Vitamin D serum levels. We are all aware of that. Either yourself or your dermatologist sets the dosage in photo-therapy, but the dosage is not based on D-3 serum levels. Just to be clear, I consider a walk on the beach to be photo-therapy.

So I suspect that we can all agree that photo-therapy does more than modulate your Vitamin D levels?
This might only have significance for us Psoriasis sufferers. To put it another way, people with "normal skin" may do equally well regardless of the source of their Vitamin D, just as long as their serum levels are maintained.

So to get to the point here, what is it exactly that helps our psoriatic skin with photo-therapy?
[INDENT]Is it a metabolite of Vitamin D regulation generated by a positive or negative feedback loop during it's synthesis?
Is it somehow true that despite the generation of even more inflammation and free radicals from the UV light, this is paradoxically relieving an already inflamed condition?
Is it that the UV light kills off any pathogens trying to cross through the inferior barriers of our psoriatic lesions and thereby makes our immune systems happy for the break in the battle?
Is it because it kills our own immune cells who have become deranged?
Why doesn't it have an equal and opposite reaction upon our normal skin tissues?
Does photo-therapy work better when you are exercising at the same time?
Does perspiration somehow play a role? [/INDENT]

Thanks to one and all for the great thread!
OtherThoughts

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** Originally posted by DottieD **

Thanks for the new references - a nice homework assignment for today! I am also interested in your thoughts about sulfur and skin.

I believe the main benefit of UV radiation is that it kills off some of the T-lymphocytes that reside in our skin - the ones that are manufacturing the prostaglandins and leukotrienes that are responsible for abnormal keratinocyte reproduction. The narrow-band UVB is exactly the right wavelength to penetrate to the depth where a good share of the T-cells are. And that's why clearing with UV light sometimes results in longer-term relief: it takes a while for the T-cell levels in the skin to build back up. So, as you said, it "kills our own immune cells who have become deranged."

Of course, these immune cells may not be deranged at all - they may simply be overstimulated due to the excessive inflammation in our bodies --- could this be partly caused by lectins attaching to our cell surface receptors?

It seems that the effect of UV on our body's production of vitamin D is a different action.

Stewart - love the new name - Dottmeister has so much more panache than DottieD!

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** Originally posted by avadoro **

So to get to the point here, what is it exactly that helps our psoriatic skin with photo-therapy?
[INDENT]Is it a metabolite of Vitamin D regulation generated by a positive or negative feedback loop during it's synthesis?
Is it somehow true that despite the generation of even more inflammation and free radicals from the UV light, this is paradoxically relieving an already inflamed condition?
Is it that the UV light kills off any pathogens trying to cross through the inferior barriers of our psoriatic lesions and thereby makes our immune systems happy for the break in the battle?
Is it because it kills our own immune cells who have become deranged?
Why doesn't it have an equal and opposite reaction upon our normal skin tissues?
Does photo-therapy work better when you are exercising at the same time?
Does perspiration somehow play a role? [/INDENT]

Thanks to one and all for the great thread!
OtherThoughts

during phototeraphy UVB or PUVA there are some pararell things that happen
the most important thing is influence on Langerhans cells - they are present in your skin and when they discover enemy/toxin they go to nearby lymph node to present this toxin in order to decide which antibody should be applied in this case. This antibody is then send to this place where the toxin was discovered. After some time this process is automated and is called immuno-memory. When tanning - you kill Langerhans cells and this presentation process is disturbed. No antibodies - no inflammation - but toxins are still there , so that is why your patches come back after a certain period. Langerhans cells go around your body freely but tend to gather in different areas of the body
Other thing is vitamin D3, as you know. In order to keep D3 working for you you need calcium. If you don't eat calcium with your food it is taken from your bones or teeth.
During simple tanning it is better to be sweat because of cis-urokaine acid that is bacteriastatic and anti-inflammatory agent.
Tanning is strong immunosupresant.
UVB and PUVA change also basal layer of the skin ( that is very thin in psoriasis ), thicker it.
UV frequency also impair mRNA processes in your skin and stimulate production of neuropeptydes in your skin

ps. insufficient/poor metabolism of calcium is very often in psoriatric skin !!!!

http://www.healthline.com/channel/psoriasis_supplements
http://www.nature.com/jid/journal/v114/n4/full/5600666a.html

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** Originally posted by OtherThoughts **

Snip from <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keratin"">wikipedia</a>>
[INDENT]Disulfide bridges

In addition to intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, keratins have large amounts of the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine, required for the disulfide bridges that confer additional strength and rigidity by permanent, thermally-stable crosslinking—a role sulfur bridges also play in vulcanized rubber. Human hair is approximately 14% cysteine. The pungent smells of burning hair and rubber are due to the sulfur compounds formed. Extensive disulfide bonding contributes to the insolubility of keratins, except in dissociating or reducing agents.

The more flexible and elastic keratins of hair have fewer interchain disulfide bridges than the keratins in mammalian fingernails, hooves and claws (homologous structures), which are harder and more like their analogs in other vertebrate classes. Hair and other α-keratins consist of α-helically-coiled single protein strands (with regular intra-chain H-bonding), which are, then further twisted into superhelical ropes that may be further coiled. The β-keratins of reptiles and birds have β-pleated sheets twisted together, then stabilized and hardened by disulfide bridges.
End snip>[/INDENT]

My thought processes regarding sulfur's relationship to skin simply relates to the amino-acid-cysteine content of keratins and the presence of keratins in the tissues that Psoriasis seems to favor. Which also made me wonder whether elevated serum levels of <a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homocysteine"">Homocysteine </a>had any connection to Psoriasis intensity. Sorry, it doesn't get any better than that for now.

Another Interesting pdf
<a href="http://"http://www.nature.com/jid/journal/v128/n12/pdf/jid2008331a.pd f"">Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Keratinocytes by Histamine</a>


Dottmeister
[INDENT]Of course, these immune cells may not be deranged at all - they may simply be overstimulated due to the excessive inflammation in our bodies --- could this be partly caused by lectins attaching to our cell surface receptors?
[/INDENT]

Yeah I think they could, but why the attraction of lectins to the tissues Psoriasis seems to favor? Why not every inch of our skin like smallpox or something?

And Finally, Here's an ambitious suggestion, the members of the forum could develop a survey that puts a number on the things we want to know about and suspect could help us to sort things out? The survey could address any subject matter that we all want answers to and could be filled out anonymously by those members who want to participate and help. Perhaps the Poll feature of the forum would suffice?
Something akin to a<a href="http://"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retrospective_cohort""> Retrospective cohort study</a>

Best Regards
OtherThoughts

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